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Example Field of Study and Research Plan Monbukagakusho/MEXT Scholarship

 

MEXT SCHOLARSHIP

(別紙様式7)

専攻分野及び研究計画

Field of Study and Research Plan

 

Contoh atau Example Field of Study and Research Plan MEXT Scholarship

Proposed study program in Japan (Outline your field of study on this side and the specific of your study program on the reverse side of this sheet. This section is one of the most important references for selection. The statement must be typewritten or written in block letters. Additional sheets of paper may be attached if necessary. If plagiarism or fraud is discovered after selection, the selection will be cancelled retroactively.)

(日本での研究計画;この研究計画は,選考の重要な参考となるので,表面に専攻分野の概要を,裏面に研究計画の詳細を具体に記入すること。記入はタイプ又は楷書によるものとし,必要な場合は別紙を追加してもよい。なお、採用後に不正、盗用等が判明した場合は遡って採用を取り消す。)

If you have Japanese language ability, write in Japanese. (相当の日本語能力を有する者は,日本語により記入すること。)

 

1 Present field of study(現在の専攻分野)

In 2016, I won a Full-Funded scholarship and graduated from Universitas Pertamina in 2020 with a Bachelor's Degree in Environmental Engineering. My final project is “Design of Auto Floating Garbage Collector (AFGC) in Pesanggarahan River, South Jakarta, Indonesia”. The project is about making tools to reduce waste in the Pesanggrahan River, mainly plastic waste, although the floating cube has been used as a garbage collection tool in the river, it is not effective in reducing waste because there is still waste that escapes with the purpose to design an AFGC that is efficient in the aspects of manufacturing cost and effective from the aspect of waste removal and collection as well as knowing the AFGC specifications in the Pesanggrahan River, Jakarta. The data from this project was collected from Joint Research About “Environment Dynamic Analysis: Estimation of Plastic Emission to The Ocean in Indonesia”, Japan Society for Promotion of Science (JSPS) between Universitas Pertamina and Toyohashi University and Technology. Expected, the results of this final project will become a reference for the Special Capital Region of Jakarta Government to provide an efficient and effective floating garbage collector to save the aquatic environment.

For the next study and research, my proposed field of study is still about the aquatic environment but focusing on the coastal zone. With basic of environment, the research theme is about Numerical Simulation of Coastal Ecosystems Changes Due to Changes in Coastlines and Relation with Sediment Transport Model. 

 2 Your research topic in Japan: Describe articulately the research you wish to carry out in Japan.

(渡日後の研究テーマ:日本においてどういった研究がしたいかを明確に記入すること)

Research Theme:

Numerical Simulation of Coastal Ecosystems Changes Due to Changes in Coastlines and Relation with Sediment Transport Model

 

1. Introduction

Communities are facing many challenges in today’s world. Sediment transport, for a long time considered for civil engineering (polders, ports, breakwater, jetty, groin, etc.) has now very sensitive issues for society, by the growing needs for sand resources, for environmental issues or safety, through extreme events that violently affect inhabited coastlines (Ouillon, 2018). As a valuable resource in coastal areas, coastlines are not only vulnerable to natural processes such as erosion, siltation, and disasters, but are also subjected to strong pressures from human processes such as urban growth, resource development, and pollution discharge (Sui et al.,2020). On the other hand, extreme events, such as tsunami waves and storm surges, can cause severe changes to coastal morphology (Rasyif et al., 2019).

 The sediment transport processes and the resulting morphodynamics of the nearshore coastal zone are quite complex. Besides field measurements, complex behaviors can be investigated with the help of numerical models. Hydrodynamic and sediment transport modelling lead us possible to know and estimate hydrodynamic behavior and quantify erosion, deposition, and sediment transport for the given period over a large or tight area (Fattah et al., 2018). Even today highly simplified formulas and models are applied, when the development of the coastline is to be calculated. It would be of great advantage to have a two-dimensional model that describes all the different modes of transport in a natural process-based manner. Because a large fraction of the sediment is transported along the bar, it is desirable to incorporate the bars in the simulation system. 

Understanding the dynamics of sediment transport and erosion-deposition patterns in the locality of a coastal structure is vital to evaluating the performance of coastal structures and predicting the changes in coastal dynamics caused by a specific structure. The nearshore hydro-morphodynamic responses to coastal structures vary widely, as these responses are complex functions with numerous parameters, including structural design, sediment, and wave dynamics, angle of approach, the slope of the coast, and the materials making up the beach and structures. Sediment transport in coastal areas is mainly influenced by dynamic nearshore processes and site-specific environmental conditions, including sediment characteristics, wind, currents, waves, tides, and the exchange processes between estuaries and nearshore regions (Fitri et al., 2019). 

This case happened at Lampuuk beach which coastlines transformation because of sediment transport that changes the coastal ecosystem. The tsunami in 2004 has resulted in coastline shifts along the west coast of Aceh. One of the beaches in the western region that undergoes a major coastline change, the results show that coastline changes occur very significantly during the 2004 tsunami and persisted until 2005, but after 2010 the coastline was back to normal. In 2005-2018 the sedimentation process at Lampuuk Beach was more dominant, these changes are gradually recovered by the presence of sedimentation assisting to adjust the shape of the coastal profile as before the 2004 tsunami (Adela et al., 2019). 

In this research, I will develop a Depth-Averaged Two-dimensional Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model. A depth-averaged two-dimensional (2-D) numerical model for the simulation from the models and to provide confidence in the simulations of the current, waves, and patterns of suspended sediment concentration. The numerical model will develop with Phyton or Fortran. 

2. Objectives

  1. To Developed Depth-Averaged Two-dimensional Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model to identified Changes in Coastal Ecosystems Due to Changes in Coastlines and Relation with Sediment Transport Model
  2. To Better Understand the mechanism and process involved in these movement and in successive transport phase, with some area-specific or sediment type-specific process.
  3. To Investigating the impact of the sediment transport on environment and ecosystem.
  4. To Quantify or even to anticipate the impact of sediment transport on environments and ecosystems. 

3. Methodology

a. Data Collection

In this study, field-measured and secondary data were collected and analyzed to understand the hydrodynamic and sediment transport patterns. Field-measured data include sediment sampling along the research coastline; fine resolution bathymetry data survey along the coastline; measurement of current, waves, water level fluctuations, suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and sediment bed characteristic near the research sites; water samplings near the research sites; and monitoring of coastal sea-bed profiles. The secondary data included the weather data consist of wind and wave data, rainfall data, tide data, and bathymetry data for offshore zones. 

b. Monitoring of Sea-Bed Elevation

The sea-bed elevations in the region were monitored using a total station (theodolite) and bed-profiler for a period. The sea-bed elevation monitoring was mainly concentrated at more significant sea-bed level changes was expected, like Structure (Jetty, groin region, breakwater, and seawall) or Mangrove Degraded Area (MDA). We make several profile lines to obtain accurate bed surface data. The profiling outcomes used to analyze the erosion-deposition patterns in the locality of the monitoring structure/area by determining the elevation differences between the bed profiling measurements obtained and the initial sea-bed elevations. 

c. Numerical Modelling

Accurate prediction of hydrodynamic and sediment transport characteristics under the influence of wave-current interactions in coastal regions is a challenging task due to multifaceted nearshore dynamic process which are varying on both temporal and spatial scales. In this study, Phyton or Fortran will use for simulating the flow hydrodynamics and cohesive sediment transport for the case study. The modelling approach adopted for study is based on the numerical solution of the two-dimensional incompressible Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equation with the assumption of Boussinesq and hydrostatic pressure.


Example  Contoh Field of Study and Research Plan

1.     Model Setup

The numerical model is used to investigate the impact of Structure or MDA on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport patterns in the locality of the jetty, groin region or mangrove degraded area. In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics, including currents and waves, were simulated in presence of the Structure or MDA and without Structure or MDA to quantify the impact of the Structure or MDA on the nearshore processes. Separate models were developed to simulate the conditions for the neap and spring tides. The suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) were also simulated in the vicinity of the Structure or MDA for both seasons and tidal conditions. The numerical results were compared to the data obtained from field measurements, for calibration and validation purposes. 

2.     Model Input

Model input data consisted of bathymetry data; climate data, including wind characteristics, water level and wave characteristics; sediment data, including sediment characteristics, SSC and TSS; and water discharge from research sites. The bathymetry data obtained from previous research. These data were further integrated with bathymetry data. Following successful model calibration and validation, the model was set up by using the dominant wind and wave characteristics and the average SSC. 

3.     Computational Domain

The computational domain was developed with the use of bathymetry data and by adopting a flexible mesh technique. The computational domain developed for hydrodynamic and sediment transport modelling. This study set the computational domains beyond the study area. Therefore, the computational domain developed for the simulation. To improve the cost-efficiency of the modelling, smaller computational domain was generated for the sediment transport model. The computational domain developed for hydrodynamic, wave and sediment transport modelling. 

4.     Model Calibration and Validation

To check the accuracy of the simulation results from the models and to provide confidence in the simulations of the current, waves, and patterns of suspended sediment concentration in the locality of the existing detached jetty, groin region, or mangrove degraded area, the simulation results obtained from the models were calibrated initially against measured conditions.

 

The calibration of the hydrodynamic model was carried out by adjusting the values of the bed roughness/Manning number over the whole computational domain. The calibration of the wave model was carried out by adjusting the values of the wave breaking parameters, bottom friction parameters, and white-capping (deep water wave breaking) parameters. The calibration of the mud transport model was carried out by adjusting the values of the erosion coefficient, power of erosion, settling velocity, and critical shear stress for deposition and erosion. To check the accuracy of the simulation results, the Theil’s inequality coefficients, R Squared (R2), and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) were calculated.

 

Now, compares the simulated and measured water level, current characteristics, wave characteristics, and SSC at each station. Make the result table to the values of Thiel’s coefficient, R2 and RMSE obtained during the model calibration and validation. Based on the standard error allowed by Guideline for Hydrodynamic Modelling from Government Department, for hydrodynamic and sediment transport modelling, to prove that the models we calibrated and validated are correct.

References

Adela, I., Nugraha, G. S., Irham, M., & Syahreza, S. (2019). Spatial Analysis of Post Tsunami 2004 Coastline Changes in Lampuuk, Aceh Besar. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 273. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/273/1/012046

Fattah, A. H., Suntoyo, Damerianne, H. A., & Wahyudi. (2018). Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Modelling of. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science.

Fitri, A., Hashim, R., Abolfathi, S., & Maulud, K. N. (2019). Dynamics of Sediment Transport and Erosion-Deposition Patterns in the locality of Detached Low-Crested Breakwater on a Cohesive Coast. Water. doi:10.3390/w11081721

Ouillon, S. (2018). Why and How do We Study Sediment Transport? Focus on Coastal Zones and Ongoing Methods. Water. doi:10.3390/w10040390

Rasyif, T. M., Kato, S., & Syamsidik, T. O. (2019). Numerical Simulation of Morphological Changes due to the 2004 Tsunami Wave around Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Geosciences. doi:10.3390/geosciences9030125

Sui, L., Wang, J., Yang, X., & Wang, Z. (2020). Spatial-Temporal Characteristics of Coastline Changes in Indonesia from 1990 to 2018. Sustainability. 

 

 
3 Study program in Japan: (Describe in detail and with specifics - particularly concerning the ultimate goal(s) of your research in Japan)

(研究計画:詳細かつ具体に記入し、特に研究の最終目標について具体的に記入すること。)

I would like to start as Research Student at Coastal Engineering Laboratory at Department of Environmental Engineering, X University , under guidance of Professor X in October 2021. I plan to start as Research Student first, because during the Research Student Program I can do some preparation before taking Master Degree. I plan to study the researches at X Laboratory first so that I can know more about the detail of the researches, the research working environment, the people at the laboratory and their works. During the Research Program, I also plan to study and prepare myself for winter examination for taking Master Degree, and to study Japanese language which is really important for daily lives during my stay in Japan. I would like to take the winter examination for taking Master Degree which is around January-February 2022, and start my Master Degree in April 2022. I plan to take the courses which support my research in every semester. Generally, the plan is shown as time table below. 

Contoh atau Example Field of Study and Research Plan MEXT Scholarship

If I have an opportunity, I would like to continue my study to Doctoral Degree after finishing my Master Degree and continue studying about Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model if it is possible. The ultimate goal of my research and study in Japan is to develop efficient Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model which in the end will assist in accelerating the data collection of the main coastline areas in my country Indonesia as an archipelagic country that has a long coastline over the country and can make disaster mitigation such as prediction ecosystem impact so we can anticipate environmental problems that can arise in the future.




#Example Field of Study and Research Plan MEXT Scholarship 
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